Mysore (or Mysuru) ( i/maɪˈsʊər/) is the third largest city in the state of Karnataka, India, which served as the capital city of Mysore Princely Kingdom (Kingdom of Mysore) for nearly six centuries, from 1399 until 1947. Located at the base of the Chamundi Hills about 146 km (91 mi) southwest of the state capital Bangalore, it is spread across an area of 128.42 km2 (50 sq mi). According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India, the population of Mysore is 887,446; of which male and female are 443,813 and 443,633 respectively. The total population of the urban agglomeration (UA) is 920,550. Mysore City Corporation is responsible for the civic administration of the city, which is also the headquarters of the Mysore district and theMysore division.

The name Mysore is an anglicised version of Mahishūru,[4] which means the abode of Mahisha in the local Kannada language. Though in Sanskrit Mahisha means buffalo, here Mahisha refers to Mahishasura, a mythological demon who could assume the form of both human and buffalo. According to Hindu mythology, the area was ruled by the demon Mahishasura.[4] The demon was killed by the Goddess Chamundeshwari, whose temple is situated atop the Chamundi Hills. Mahishūru later became Mahisūru (a name which, even now, the royal family uses) and finally came to be called Maisūru, its present name in the Kannada language.[5]In December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced its intention to change the English name of the city to Mysuru.[6] This has been approved by the Government of India, but as of 2011 the formalities necessary to incorporate the name change were yet to be completed.

The site where Mysore Palace now stands was occupied by a village named Puragere at the beginning of the 16th century.[8]:281The Mahishūru Fort was constructed in 1524 by Chamaraja Wodeyar III (1513–1553),[8]:257 who passed on the dominion of Puragere to his son Chamaraja Wodeyar IV (1572–1576). Since the 16th century, the name of Mahishūru has commonly been used to denote the city.[9]:31The Mysore Kingdom, governed by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire after the Battle of Talikota in 1565, the Mysore Kingdom gradually achieved independence, and by the time of King Narasaraja Wodeyar (1637) it had become a sovereign state.[10]:228 Seringapatam (modern-day Srirangapatna), near Mysore, was the capital of the kingdom from 1610.[8]:257 The 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and, under Narasaraja Wodeyar I andChikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu, to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan.

Tourism is the major industry in Mysore. The city attracted about 3.15 million tourists in 2010.[37] Mysore has traditionally been home to industries such as weaving, sandalwood carving, bronzework and the production of lime and salt.[38] The planned industrial growth of the city and the state was first envisaged at the Mysore economic conference in 1911.[38][39] This led to the establishment of industries such as the Mysore Sandalwood Oil Factory in 1917 and the Sri Krishnarajendra Mills in 1920.

Mysore is located at 12.30°N 74.65°E and has an average altitude of 770 metres (2,526 ft).[68] It is spread across an area of 128.42 km2(50 sq mi)[2]:4 at the base of the Chamundi Hills in the southern region of Karnataka. Mysore is the southern-most city of Karnataka, and is a neighboring city of the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the south, flanked by the state cities Mercara, Chamarajanagara, and Mandya.

Mysore has a tropical savanna climate designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The main seasons are summer from March to June, the monsoon season from July to November and winter from December to February.[68] The highest temperature recorded in Mysore was 38.5 °C (101 °F) on 4 May 2006, and the lowest was 7.7 °C (46 °F) on 16 January 2012.[71][72] The city's average annual rainfall is 804.2 mm.

Mysore is a major tourist destination in its own right and serves as a base for other tourist attractions in the vicinity.[15] The city receives large number of tourists during the 10-day Dasarafestival.[111] One of the most visited monuments in India, the Amba Vilas Palace, or Mysore Palace, is the centre of the Dasara festivities.[112] The Jaganmohana Palace, The Sand Sculpture Museum the Jayalakshmi Vilas and the Lalitha Mahal are other palaces in the city.[113] Chamundeshwari Temple, atop the Chamundi Hills, and St. Philomena's Church, Wesley's Cathedral are notable religious places in Mysore.